The inverters work by taking in power from a Direct Current (DC) Source, i.e., the solar panel. The power is generated in the range of 250 Volts to 600 Volts. DC power is converted into AC power by the inversion process taking place in the inverter. This process of DC to AC Conversion is achieved by using a set of solid state devices like Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT’s.). These devices when connected in a typical H-Bridge arrangement oscillate the DC power thereby creating AC power.
A step up transformer is used in between the devices. At this stage, the AC power output is obtained, which is either consumed by the local loads or can be fed to the grid. A few manufacturers have started manufacturing transformer-less inverters which have higher efficiencies as compared to inverters having transformers.
In any solar power inverter a micro-controller chip is present which is programmed to execute various complex algorithms in a precise manner. The controller maximizes the power output from the photovoltaic panels through the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm.